Views 45MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF Color Atlas of Dental Medicine - Aesthetic Dentistry. Read more · Pocket Atlas of Dental Radiology · Read more. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Friedrich A. Pasler and others published Pocket Atlas of Dental Radiology. PDF | On Sep 1, , Friedrich A. Pasler and others published Pasler FA, Visser H - Pocket Atlas of Dental Radiology.
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Download PDF Pocket Atlas of Dental Radiology.. Free PDF Download of Dental Book. Best Dental Library for Dentist.. All Dental Books at One Place. Pocket atlas of radiographic anatomy / Torsten B. Moeller, Emil Reif.—2nd ed. Findings in Radiology and Pocket Atlas of Radiographic Positioning. Our in-. Pocket Atlas of Dental Radiology Friedrich A. Pasler Heiko Visser karcodicdistwha.tk Seite 1 Mittwoch, April
This will be more or less completely attenuated depending upon its distance from the plane of focus. The thickness of the slice depends upon the se- lected slice angle.
A small angle short path, blue will image a thicker plane than will a larger angle longer path, red. If the layer in focus is thicker than 5 mm, the procedure is referred to as zonogra- phy, and if less than 3 mm, tomography.
The method of spiral attenuation with the longest pathway provides the best results with the thinnest layers in focus and the least amount of volume artifacts, especially in skull radiographs.
The radiation source right and the image receptor holder left move in the clockwise direction around the skull, while the im- age receptor IR itself moves in the opposite direction behind the secondary slotted diaphragm. The central ray falls upon the counter-orbiting image receptor, having first passed through the primary slotted diaphragm, then through the vertical slot nearest the image receptor. According to the origi- nal version by Paatero, the central ray is guided in an elliptical track over three pivotal points from C over B after A.
It would be better to think of these three pivotal points as three vertical axes of rota- tion within a flat bundle of rays. The thickness changes from about 9 mm in the anterior region up to approximately 20 mm in the region of the temporo- mandibular joints.
This imaging procedure can be categorized as zonography with different depths of field in different segments of the jaws. Structures outside of the plane are not completely elimi- nated, so that a summation effect from the third dimension may lead to improper interpretation of the two-dimensional radiographic image.
In this example of the anterior region of the mandible, it becomes clear that objects in front of the plane are not sharply depicted and are re- duced in size, while objects behind the plane are also not sharply depicted but are expanded in size.
A metal sphere positioned in front of the plane of focus, for example during implant simulations, ap- pears blurred and vertically oval in shape, while a metal sphere behind the plane appears blurred but laterally oval.
Conventional skull radiographic techniques are associated with an inevitable pattern of scatter radiation.
The slot-technique provides clearer images, but at the cost of higher radiation exposure. The panoramic radiograph described by Paatero is therefore actually based on the slot-technique, in that it is an elliptoid-shaped zonography with vary- ing depths of field.
Nevertheless, it offers valuable delegates this task to auxiliary personnel is re- information as a basis for treatment planning, ally a question of responsibility for the radio- is far superior to purely clinical observations, graphic quality that is achieved, and the radi- and often gives impetus for more extensive ation dose that this requires.
If, for whatever examination strategies. On the well-trained and have received legal certifica- other hand, clear radiographic depiction of tion. They must not only become expert in the not only the teeth, but also the jaws, the tem- production of high-quality radiographs, but poromandibular joints, and the alveolar lobes must also be knowledgeable regarding the of the maxillary sinuses will reduce the risk of dental indications and the procedures for pro- an incomplete and possibly incorrect exami- tecting patients and staff from excessive radi- nation, which in the worst-case scenario ation exposure.
Auxiliary dental personnel could lead to malpractice. This is guishing between and among normal and critical! This, in conjunction Fig. Using a bite plane, the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth can be positioned vertically in an end-to-end bite, and be depicted clearly and sharply in the plane of focus. With this technique, however, it is important to carefully position the occlusal plane and the median-saggital plane in order to avoid subsequent errors of interpreta- tion or the necessity for re-takes.
If it is possible to position the ante- rior maxillary and mandibular teeth in edge-to-edge arrangement parallel with and within the layer in focus, the result will be a clear and sharp radiographic depiction of the anterior teeth, and the pro- portions of these teeth will be portrayed in their correct relationships.
In patients where it is indicated to perform panoramic radiography in habitual occlusion, it is often really not possible to depict the anterior teeth or por- tions of these teeth sharply and with proper dimensions. The schematic diagram shows that the roots of the anterior teeth are behind the plane and are therefore depicted as blurred and widened. However, in many cases this leads to an unacceptable image, because the occlusal plane green occurs at a vari- able angle to the Frankfurt horizontal.
The occlusal plane green should with some exceptions be positioned such that it is either horizontal black line , for example with small children or perio- dontal patients, or rises slightly dorsally, in which case the Frankfurt horizontal red can be disre-4 garded.
For orientation, the Camper plane yellow can also be considered as it is identified coursing from the nasal spine subnasale to the tragion, and in almost all cases closely parallels the occlusal plane. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license Positioning and Positioning Errors Modern panoramic imaging systems are avail- exact position of an object in the third dimen- able in various configurations with many dif- sion. Knowledge of the myriad of radiographic ferent computer programs from which the diagnostic tools that are available, and use of dentist can select ones suitable for either con- low-dose techniques in utilizing them are es- ventional film images or digital images.
The sential parts in the foundation of a modern, dentist can isolate a section of an image and high-quality dental practice. Since its intro- digitally enhance it, thereby making it possi- duction more than 50 years ago, the pano- ble to monitor the course of treatment with a ramic radiograph machine has evolved into a minimum of radiation exposure.
Details can multifunctional panoramic tomographic im- be enlarged and the brightness and contrast aging system with spiral attenuation. With its adjusted so that fewer additional exposures use, it is now possible to make high-quality are needed. Intraoral radiographs are then transverse tomograms of the jaw in the dental necessary only for complementing the pano- office.
The diagnostic value of various other ramic radiograph with individual projections programs, however, remains controversial. The most common ex- Those dentists, who have the desire and abil- ample of this is the bite-wing radiograph for ity to equip their practices with the full array the detection of dental caries.
Furthermore, of radiographic diagnostic possibilities, pos- because the panoramic radiograph is a two- sess an enormous larder of radiographic diag- dimensional image, it must sometimes be nostic and examination possibilities that were supplemented with additional intra- or ex- unimaginable only a few years ago. In this radiograph, the maxillary and man- dibular anterior segments are positioned behind the plane of focus and therefore appear unsharp and broadened in the radiograph.
The median saggital plane is obliquely positioned note the asym- metric depiction of the zygomatic bone. The mandible is shifted toward the left. See midline and the asymmetric depiction of the antagonistic arch segment. The diagram shows the positioning of the anterior teeth behind the plane of focus.
The result is a blurred depiction of the anterior teeth and their width is exaggerated. The diagram shows the positioning of the anterior teeth in front of the plane. The result is an unsharp appearance and apparent narrowing of the incisors. The maxillary and mandibular anterior segments were positioned in front of the plane of focus and the result is narrowing and blurring. In addition, the midline of the mandible is shifted to the left.
Depending upon whether the skull is tilted backward or forward, the maxillary anterior anatomy may be widened or narrowed, and the mandib-6 ular anterior segment narrowed or widened in the image.
Careful patient positioning is a decisive fac- tor in determining the quality of the images of the anterior teeth and also the necessity for re-takes, which cause an unnecessary elevation of radiation exposure for the patient. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license Positioning and Positioning ErrorsPanoramic Radiography Panoramic radiographs tomograms have a thinner slice does require greater exposure enriched and even revolutionized radio- parameters, subjecting the patient to a higher graphic diagnostic possibilities in dental prac- dose of radiation.
Demands for ever higher tice. In their implementation, important roles image quality carry not only a noticeably are played by the thickness of the target layer, higher monetary price, but also necessitates the type of attenuation figure, and the magni- special technical skills.
Furthermore, the de- fication factor. The latter allows measure- sired image quality is achieved not only ments to be calculated accurately.
A distinc- through technical finesse but also, to a certain tion can be made between thick-layer imaging extent, through greater precision in position- zonography and thin-layer imaging tomog- ing the targeted structures within the layer raphy.
Slice thickness is dependent upon the predetermined by the apparatus. Under these slice angle see Fig. A general premise is: craniofacial anatomy, which can only then be the thinner the slice, the less the presence of practically applied.
The effective use of a high- an artifact at a given distance from the plane performance panoramic unit is, in addition, of focus will interfere with the interpretation extremely time-intensive, and this is fre- of structures lying within the targeted layer, quently underestimated in the daily schedul- and the finer the resolution will be.
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